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Lu Su
Lusu-rotk12
Character information
Force(s): Eastern Wu Bronx OutLawz Crimson Dragonz
Weapon Type: Rake
Significant Battle(s): The Big Push
First appearance: Rise of the Machines
Historical information
Real name: Lǔ Sù
Chinese name: 魯肅 - 鲁肃
Style name: Zǐjìng
Chinese name: 子敬
Born: 172
Died: 217

Lu Su is an advisor for the Kingdom of Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China. He took control of the military after the death of Zhou Yu. During the Battle of Chibi, Lu Su served as a close advisor to Zhou Yu and a liaison with Liu Bei's forces. Upon Zhou Yu's death, Lu Su was put in charge of Sun Quan's army and was Head Advisor until his own death.

Before his playable Dynasty Warriors  appearance, Lu Su was a generic Wu NPC since the series's second title.

His height in Kessen II is 170 cm (5'7").

ContentsEdit

[[[]]hide] *1 Role in Games

Role in GamesEditEdit

He is officially described in Kessen II as a brave and intelligent strategist whose abilities may be match Zhou Yu. Lu Su directs an army of crossbow units and can only use magic to fight back his foes.

Voice ActorsEditEdit

  • Hideyuki Tanaka - Kessen II (Japanese)
  • Taiten Kusunoki - Shin Sangoku Musou 7 (Japanese)
  • Takeshi Endo - Romance of the Three Kingdoms drama CD series

QuotesEditEdit

Historical InformationEditEdit

Lu Su (172–217),[1][2] style name Zijing, was a politician, militarist and diplomat serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han Dynasty. As one of Sun Quan's most important subjects, Lu Su was most noted for having drafted a plan for Sun Quan to compete with a rival warlord Cao Cao for supremacy over China, and succeeding Zhou Yu as the commander-in-chief of Sun Quan's military forces after Zhou's death in 210. Lu Su also played an important role in the formation of an alliance between Sun Quan and Liu Bei, as well as being a strong proponent of maintaining friendly relations between the two warlords.

ContentsEdit

Early lifeEdit

Lu Su was a native of Dongcheng (東城), Linhuai (臨淮), which is located southeast of present-day Dingyuan County, Chuzhou, Anhui.[3] He lost his father not long after his birth so he lived with his grandmother. Lu Su was very generous with his family's wealth as he used it to help the needy. The Book of Wu (吳書) by Wei Zhao described Lu Su as having a stalwart and extraordinary appearance. He had great ambitions since he was young and was very fond of strategy.[4]

Towards the end of the Han Dynasty, when chaos broke out throughout China due to the Yellow Turban Rebellion and Dong Zhuo's usurpation of state power, Lu Su sold his family's lands and properties and used the money to help the poor. He also spent his time associating with other reputable and talented persons. He was well-loved by his fellow townsfolk.[5]

The Book of Wu gave another account of Lu Su's life during that chaotic period. He started learning sword-fighting, horse-riding and archery, and rallied a group of young men as his followers, providing them with clothing and food. They often went to the hills to hunt and practise military arts. The elders of the clan remarked, "The Lu family is in decline, that's how we got this wild boy!"[6]

Moving to JiangdongEdit

Around 196, when Zhou Yu was nominally serving as the Chief of Juchao (居巢長) under the warlord Yuan Shu, he planned to leave Yuan Shu and travel east to the Jiangdong region to join Sun Ce, who had recently conquered several territories in Jiangdong over the past few years. Along his journey, Zhou Yu brought his militia, numbering a few hundred men, to visit Lu Su, requesting for supplies. At that time, Lu Su owned two large granaries, each capable of storing 3,000 hu (斛) of grain, and he pointed at one granary and gave it to Zhou Yu. Zhou Yu realised that Lu Su was an extraordinary person, so he befriended the latter. Their friendship was likened to that of Gongsun Qiao and Ji Zha (季札) in the Spring and Autumn Period.[7] The Chinese idiom "pointing at a granary and presenting it" (traditional Chinese: 指囷相贈; simplified Chinese: 指囷相赠; pinyin: zhǐ jūn xiāng zèng), which means to provide generous aid to someone,[8] originated from this incident.

When Yuan Shu heard of Lu Su's fame, he wanted to recruit the latter to serve as the Chief of Dongcheng (東城) under him. However, Lu Su saw that Yuan Shu's administration was ill-disciplined and felt that Yuan would not be successful. He told his followers, "The central government has failed. Robbers and bandits are rampant. The areas around the Huai and Si rivers are no longer safe. I heard that the lands in Jiangdong are fertile, its people are prosperous, and its armies powerful. We can seek shelter there. Are you willing to accompany me to that paradise and wait until the situation here stabilises?" They all agreed to follow him.[9]

Lu Su then led his followers and some civilians southward to Juchao to join Zhou Yu. He ordered able-bodied young men to guard the rear while the others moved ahead first. The local authorities sent some armed horsemen to stop Lu Su and his party from leaving. When the riders caught up with them, Lu Su turned back and said to them, "You're all men of courage, so you should understand the situation well. The country is now in a state of chaos. You won't be rewarded for your efforts (if you succeed in stopping us), but neither will you get punished if you don't pursue us. Do you really have to force us?" He then placed a shield upright on the ground and fired an arrow at it, piercing through the shield. The horsemen agreed with what Lu Su had said and knew that they could not stop him so they gave up and left. Lu Su then crossed the Yangtze River together with Zhou Yu and arrived in Jiangdong, where they met Sun Ce, who also felt that Lu Su was a special person.[10][11] Lu Su settled in Qu'e (曲阿; in present-day Danyang, Jiangsu). When his grandmother died, he returned to Dongcheng to attend her funeral.[12]

Nearly leaving JiangdongEdit

Liu Ye, a friend of Lu Su, once wrote a letter to the latter: "Now, warlords and heroes have emerged all over China. I feel that the time has come for me to put my talents to good use. I'm in a rush to fetch my mother but I'll be stopping in Dongcheng for a while. I heard that recently, someone called Zheng Bao (鄭寶) has rallied thousands of followers in Chaohu and the lands under their control are very fertile. Many people in Lujiang (廬江) are planning to join him after hearing about him, not to mention me. I observe his situation and see that he is still gathering people. You should act fast and not lose this opportunity." Lu Su agreed to Liu Ye's plan.[13] After his grandmother's funeral, Lu Su returned to Qu'e and made plans to leave Jiangdong and head north. However, Lu Su found out that Zhou Yu had relocated his mother to Wu commandery (吳郡; commandery capital in present-day Suzhou, Jiangsu) so he went to Wu to question Zhou about it.[14]

Sun Ce was assassinated in 200 CE and was succeeded by his younger brother Sun Quan. When Lu Su arrived in Wu commandery, Sun Quan was already the new lord of Jiangdong and he was also in Wu. Zhou Yu said to Lu Su: "In the past, Ma Yuan once told Emperor Guangwu, 'In this era, not only do lords choose their subjects, but subjects also choose their lords.' The current lord (Sun Quan) welcomes and respects persons of virtue and talent, and he has recruited many extraordinary people. Besides, I've also heard that the philosophers in the past had secretly predicted that the successor to the Liu family's empire will rise in the southeast. Based on the present situation, this event is already in motion. This is the time for heroes to rise up and display their abilities, and assist in the construction of a new empire for the reception of the Mandate of Heaven. Having said this, you won't need to take Liu Ye's words to heart." Lu Su heeded Zhou Yu's advice.[15]

When Zhou Yu recommended Lu Su to Sun Quan as someone who can provide valuable assistance to a ruler, he knew that his lord needed to widely recruit more of such talents in order to accomplish his goals. As such, he could not afford to let Lu Su leave.[16]

Drafting a plan for Sun QuanEdit

Sun Quan immediately summoned Lu Su to meet him and was happy to see the latter. Later, when all the other guests left the meeting, Lu Su also took his leave but Sun Quan personally called him back. They then shared a table and had a secret conversation over drinks. Sun Quan asked, "The Han Dynasty is in decline and there is turmoil everywhere. I've inherited the work of my father and elder brother, and I intend to make achievements like those of Huan and Wen. I'm honoured to have your noble patronage. What advice do you intend to give me?" Lu Su replied, "In the past, Emperor Gao had wanted to serve under Emperor Yi of Chu but the latter was harmed by Xiang Yu. The Cao Cao of today is like Xiang Yu in the past. Why do you still wish to follow Huan and Wen? I foresee that the Han Dynasty cannot be revived and Cao Cao cannot be eliminated. What you can do is to establish a foothold in Jiangdong and observe how the situation of the empire changes. You shouldn't be disappointed with what you currently have. Why? Because the north is not stable. Hence, you should use this opportunity to eliminate Huang Zu and attack Liu Biao, then you will have the Yangtze River to your advantage. After that you can declare yourself an emperor and fight for supremacy over the empire, just as Emperor Gao did in the past." Sun Quan said, "Now I'm using all my power for the purpose of helping the Han Dynasty. What you said cannot be achieved."[17]

Zhang Zhao, a senior advisor to Sun Quan, felt that Lu Su was not humble enough so he often spoke ill of the latter in front of their lord. He claimed that Lu Su was too young and neglectful so he could not be entrusted with important responsibilities. However, Sun Quan was not bothered and he continued to treat Lu Su with respect and hold the latter in high regard. He granted new clothes and curtains to Lu Su's mother and restored Lu Su's family to their original wealthy status.[18]

Formation of the Sun-Liu allianceEdit

Liu Biao, the Governor (牧) of Jing Province (covering present-day Hubei and Hunan), died in 208 CE and was succeeded by his younger son, Liu Cong. Upon receiving news of Liu Biao's death, Lu Su went to see Sun Quan and said, "Jing Province is our neighbouring state. Its water routes travel north, it is connected to the major rivers, and it has mountainous terrain. It is firm and stable, its lands are fertile, and its population is wealthy and prosperous. Whoever controls that region has the resources for building an empire. Now, Liu Biao has recently died, his two sons are not in harmony and his military officers are more concerned about themselves. Besides, Liu Bei has the reputation of an ambitious hero and he is Cao Cao's rival. When he sought shelter under Liu Biao, the latter was jealous of his talent and did not entrust him with important responsibilities. If Liu Bei can unite with us in spirit and work together with us, we should try to appease him and form an alliance with him; if he is unwilling to join us, we should seek alternative ways to accomplish our great task. I hereby request that you commission me as an ambassador to attend Liu Biao's memorial service and console his subordinates, while at the same time, ask Liu Bei to persuade Liu Biao's followers to unite with us to resist Cao Cao. Liu Bei will most certainly be happy to do so. If he agrees to ally with us, we will be able to pacify the empire. We must act fast because I fear that we may lose the opportunity to Cao Cao." Sun Quan then sent Lu Su as an envoy to Jing Province.[19]

When Lu Su reached Xiakou (夏口; present-day Hankou, Hubei), he heard that Cao Cao and his army was advancing towards Jing Province, so he travelled day and night in the hope of reaching Xiangyang (Jing Province's capital) first. When he arrived in Nan commandery (南郡; commandery capital in present-day Jiangling County, Jingzhou, Hubei), he received news that Liu Cong had already surrendered to Cao Cao, thus Jing Province was now under Cao's control. At the same time, Liu Bei was fleeing southward and was planning to cross the Yangtze River. Lu Su met Liu Bei at Changban (長阪), Dangyang (當陽), where he conveyed his lord's intentions to the latter and mentioned that the situation in Jiangdong was very stable. Liu Bei was very pleased. Lu Su also met and befriended Liu Bei's strategist Zhuge Liang, after he told the latter that he was a friend of Zhuge Jin (Zhuge Liang's elder brother). Liu Bei then moved to Xiakou, where he instructed Zhuge Liang to follow Lu Su to meet Sun Quan and discuss the formation of the Sun-Liu alliance.[20]

ContradictionEdit

Pei Songzhi, who annotated the historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms, felt that Lu Su was actually the first person to propose the formation of the Sun-Liu alliance. When Lu Su told Zhuge Liang that he was a friend of the latter's elder brother, Zhuge Liang had probably already heard of Lu Su numerous times. Pei pointed out that Zhuge Liang's biography in the Book of Shu (蜀書) stated: "Zhuge Liang persuaded Sun Quan with his argument on forming an alliance. Sun Quan was very pleased." Going by the Book of Shu account, the first person who suggested the Sun-Liu alliance would be Zhuge Liang, instead of Lu Su. He commented that the historians in Eastern Wu and Shu Han gave differing accounts on the first person who conceived the idea of the Sun-Liu alliance because they wanted their respective states to claim that credit. Pei further remarked that this is a poor example of historical documentation, because both Lu Su and Zhuge Liang's biographies were written by the same person (Chen Shou) but yet they contradict each other.[21]

Urging Sun Quan to resist Cao CaoEdit

In late 208, when Sun Quan received news that Cao Cao was planning to lead his forces across the Yangtze River to invade Jiangdong, he held a discussion with his subjects on how to deal with Cao Cao. All those present at the meeting advised Sun Quan to surrender and welcome Cao Cao, while only Lu Su remained silent. When Sun Quan left the meeting for a change of clothing, Lu Su hurriedly left his seat and followed his lord. Sun Quan was aware of Lu Su's intention, so he held the latter's hand and asked, "What do you wish to tell me?" Lu Su replied, "What the others have said are misleading to you, they cannot help in accomplishing our great task. I can surrender and welcome Cao Cao, but you cannot. Why so? Because if I submit to Cao Cao, he will grant me an official appointment and the treatment I will receive is similar to that of his other followers. I can still have a carriage, personal bodyguards and servants, and continue to mingle with the scholar-gentry. Officials will not lose their provinces and commanderies. However, if you submit to Cao Cao, what will happen to you? I hope you can make up your mind on this important decision soon, and not be affected by what the others have said." Sun Quan sighed and said, "I'm very disappointed with what those gentlemen have said. Your thoughts are exactly the same as mine. This is a sign that Heaven has granted you to me."[22]

Alternative accountEdit

The Book of Wei (魏書) by Ruan Ji and others, as well as the Jiuzhou Chunqiu (九州春秋) by Sima Biao, gave a different account on how Lu Su urged Sun Quan to go to war with Cao Cao. Lu Su attempted to use reverse psychology to persuade his lord, saying, "Cao Cao is truly a formidable foe. He has engulfed Yuan Shao's territories and his military forces are very powerful. If he uses the might of a victorious army to invade a state that is weak and chaotic, he'll definitely win. Why don't we despatch our troops to assist him, while you send your family to Ye (Cao Cao's base of operations in northern China)? If not, we'll be in danger." Sun Quan was enraged and he wanted to execute Lu Su, but the latter said again, "The current situation is very urgent. Since you've other plans, why don't you provide aid to Liu Bei instead of executing me?" Sun Quan agreed with Lu Su's idea, so he ordered Zhou Yu to lead his forces to help Liu Bei.[23]

Sun Sheng commented that both Wei Zhao's Book of Wu (吳書) and the Jiang Biao Zhuan (江表傳) recorded that Lu Su advised Sun Quan to resist Cao Cao and build his own empire, and when Liu Biao died, he asked Sun Quan to observe the change in the situation. There was no record of Lu Su using reverse psychology to persuade Sun Quan. Besides, there were many others among Sun Quan's subjects who asked their lord to surrender, but yet the two accounts mentioned that Sun Quan wanted to execute only Lu Su (because Lu advocated surrender, even though that was not his true intention) and not any of the others who also urged him to surrender. Therefore, Sun Sheng felt that the accounts on Lu Su's "reverse psychology speech" are unreliable.[24]

Battle of Red CliffsEdit

At that time, Zhou Yu was in Poyang (鄱陽), so Lu Su advised Sun Quan to quickly recall Zhou back to discuss their plans on how to counter Cao Cao's invasion.[25] When Zhou Yu returned, he also urged Sun Quan to stand up against Cao Cao's impending invasion, which resulted in Sun arriving at his decision to go to war with Cao. (See Zhou Yu#Advising Sun Quan to go to war with Cao Cao for details.) Sun Quan then put Zhou Yu in command of his military forces while appointed Lu Su as "Colonel Who Praises the Army" (贊軍校尉) to assist Zhou in formulating the battle plan.[26]

In the winter of 208-209, the allied forces of Sun Quan and Liu Bei defeated Cao Cao's massive army at the decisive Battle of Red Cliffs. When Lu Su returned after the battle, Sun Quan hosted a grand reception for him and told him, "Zijing, I dismounted my horse and received you on foot. Is this enough to illuminate your glory?" Lu Su replied, "No." All the others present at the scene were startled by Lu Su's response. After taking his seat, Lu Su raised his horsewhip and said, "I hope that our lord will spread his might and virtues throughout the four Seas, expand his territories to cover the Nine Provinces, and successfully build an empire. When he has achieved that and he comes to receive me on a carriage, I'll be the first to feel honoured." Sun Quan clapped his hands and laughed.[27]

Handing over Jing Province to Liu BeiEdit

Around 209, after the Battle of Jiangling, Liu Bei travelled to Jing (京; present-day Zhenjiang, Jiangsu) to meet Sun Quan and request for the governorship of Jing Province. Only Lu Su advised Sun Quan to "lend" Jing Province to Liu Bei so as to strengthen the Sun-Liu alliance against Cao Cao.[28]

At that time, Lü Fan urged Sun Quan to retain Liu Bei in Jiangdong and not let Liu return to Jing Province. However, Lu Su objected, "No. My lord, you may have received the blessings of Heaven, but Cao Cao's might is still nonetheless powerful. As we've recently taken control of Jing Province, we haven't earned the trust and support of its people yet. It's better to lease it to Liu Bei and let him help us pacify the area. The best strategy to adopt now is to create more enemies for Cao Cao and reduce the number of ours." Sun Quan agreed.[29]

Cao Cao was in the midst of writing when he received news that Sun Quan had "leased" Jing Province to Liu Bei. He dropped his ink brush upon hearing that.[30]

Succeeding Zhou YuEdit

In 210, when Zhou Yu became critically ill, he wrote to Sun Quan: "As of now, the empire has yet to be pacified, and this has always been a worry for me. I hope that you, my lord, can make plans for the future now and then have a smooth journey later. Now, we've Cao Cao as our enemy, and Liu Bei is also nearby in Gong'an (公安; present-day Gong'an County, Jingzhou, Hubei). We've yet to gain the full allegiance of the people at the border, so it's advisable to have a competent military commander to guard the area. Lu Su, with his intelligence and wisdom, is capable of taking up that responsibility, as well as replacing me. The day I die will be the day all my lingerings cease."[31]

The Jiang Biao Zhuan (江表傳) provided a longer, but generally similar, account of Zhou Yu's message to Sun Quan before his death. Zhou Yu wrote: "I'm of ordinary calibre, but I received very special and generous treatment from you, and earned your trust. I was entrusted with an honourable duty - placed in command of the armed forces and having full control over them. We should take control of Ba and Shu (present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) first and then conquer Xiangyang, after which we can depend on our might to secure victory. It's unfortunate that I contracted such a serious illness, but my condition is stabilising after receiving medical treatment. Everyone will die eventually, so I won't regret if my lifespan is fated to be short. I only feel anguish over not having realised my ambition and not being able to follow your orders anymore. Now, Cao Cao still remains as a threat in the north and the battlefields are not clear yet. Liu Bei may be seeking shelter under us, but the way we're treating him is equivalent to raising a tiger. There is no beginning nor end to the events in the world. This is a time for the ministers and you, my lord, to be worried. Lu Su is loyal and upright and he doesn't falter in the face of adversity. He can replace me. A dying person's last words are said in good faith. If you can heed this piece of advice, I'll not have died in vain."[32]

After Zhou Yu's death, Lu Su was appointed as "Colonel of Vehement Martial Might" (奮武校尉) and succeeded Zhou Yu. He took charge of the 4,000 troops and the four counties which used to be under Zhou Yu's control. Cheng Pu succeeded Zhou Yu as the Grand Administrator (太守) of Nan commandery (南郡; commandery capital in present-day Jiangling County, Jingzhou, Hubei). Lu Su was at Jiangling initially, so he moved to Lukou (陸口; in present-day Jiayu County, Xianning, Hubei) and garrisoned there. Lu Su governed with justice and benevolence, and the number of troops under his command increased to over 10,000. He was subsequently promoted to Lieutenant-General (偏將軍) and appointed as Grand Administrator of Hanchang (漢昌).[33]

In 214, Lu Su accompanied Sun Quan on a campaign at Huancheng (皖城; present-day Huaining County, Anqing, Anhui), a garrison under Cao Cao's control. After Sun Quan's forces emerged victorious, Lu Su was reassigned as "General Across the River" (橫江將軍).[34]

Sun-Liu territorial disputeEdit

BackgroundEdit

Before Zhou Yu died, he, along with Gan Ning and others, had constantly urged Sun Quan to attack Yi Province (益州; a region also known as "Bashu", covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) from its incompetent governor Liu Zhang. However, Zhou Yu died of illness while he was making preparations for an invasion of Yi Province. When Sun Quan asked Liu Bei for his opinion, the latter, who secretly harboured the intention of seizing Yi Province for himself, lied to Sun Quan: "Liu Zhang and I are both members of the imperial clan, so we should strive to uphold the Han Dynasty with the aid of our ancestors' blessings. Now, when I heard that Liu Zhang has offended his neighbours, I feel afraid and don't dare to probe further. I hope you can show leniency towards him. If you don't, I'll retire and return to the countryside." Liu Bei revealed his true intentions later when he attacked Liu Zhang himself and eventually seized control of Yi Province by 215. From 212 until 215, Liu Bei left his general Guan Yu behind to defend Jing Province in his absence. When Sun Quan heard about Liu Bei's takeover of Yi Province, he remarked angrily, "This cunning barbarian dares to trick me?"[35]

At the same time, tensions were rising at the Sun-Liu border in Jing Province as both sides became more suspicious of each other. Lu Su tried to reduce the tensions by being friendly towards Liu Bei's side. After Liu Bei had taken over Yi Province, Sun Quan asked him to return three commanderies in southern Jing Province - Changsha (長沙), Lingling (零陵) and Guiyang (桂陽) - but Liu refused. Sun Quan then ordered his general Lü Meng to lead his forces to seize the three commanderies by force. When Liu Bei received news about that, he returned to Gong'an (公安; present-day Gong'an County, Jingzhou, Hubei) and sent Guan Yu to lead an army to stop Lü Meng.[36]

NegotiationsEdit

Lu Su headed towards Yiyang and invited Guan Yu to discuss the issue. During the negotiations, both sides stationed their soldiers more than 100 paces away from the meeting area and the officers present at the talks were each armed with only a blade weapon. Lu Su told Guan Yu, "Initially, our state leased these lands to your side because you were suffering defeats and did not have a base of operations back then. However, now, after obtaining Yi Province, you don't seem to intend to return the lands. When we ask for only three commanderies, you still refuse." Before Lu Su could finish, he was interrupted by someone (whose name was not recorded in history), who said, "Whoever has the ability to govern the land shall have control over it, isn't it so?" Lu Su retorted angrily in a firm and stern tone. Guan Yu drew his sword, stood up, and said, "This is the state's problem. We cannot hope to understand it." He left after that.[37]

The Book of Wu by Wei Zhao provided more details on the meeting. Prior to the talks, Lu Su's subordinates feared that something would happen to their superior, so they advised him against meeting Guan Yu. However, Lu Su replied, "It's better for us to settle this issue in a deliberate manner. Liu Bei may have acted against our state's interests, but we've yet to agree on who is right and who is wrong. Do you think Guan Yu will dare to make a rash move, such as killing someone, at this point?" He then met Guan Yu, who said, "My lord was personally involved in the Battle of Red Cliffs and he did not rest well during that time. He relied upon his own strength to overcome the enemy. How can he not gain even a single piece of land despite his efforts? And now you come to claim the land from him?" Lu Su replied, "No. When I first met your lord at Changban, his men were too few to form even a division and his situation then was very bad as compared to now. My lord considered that your lord did not have a place to settle down, so he offered your lord protection and shelter. However, your lord was not frank with us as he acted on his own, leading to the souring of relations between our sides. Now, after taking over Yi Province, he still intends to keep Jing Province for himself as well? This is something that an ordinary person will not bear to do, much less a leader of men! I heard that those who forsake moral principles for the purpose of satisfying their personal greed will end up in trouble. My son holds important appointments. He previously lacked a good sense of judgement when he handled issues, but after receiving some moral education, he became more responsible and started striving harder. If what one does is morally right, why should he worry that he will not become successful?" Guan Yu did not respond.[38]

Liu Bei eventually agreed to divide Jing Province between his and Sun Quan's domains along the Xiang River. Both sides then withdrew their forces.[39]

DeathEdit

Lu Su died at the age of 46 (by East Asian age reckoning) in 217. Sun Quan mourned his death and attend his funeral. Zhuge Liang also held a memorial service for Lu Su.[40]

DescendantsEdit

Lu Su's son, Lu Shu (魯淑), was born physically strong. Zhang Cheng once remarked that Lu Shu would become very outstanding in the future. Between 258 and 264, during the reign of Sun Xiu, Lu Shu served as "General of Illustrious Martial Might" (昭武將軍) and Area Commander (督) of Wuchang, and was named as a "Marquis of a Chief Village" (都亭侯). Between 269 and 271, during the reign of Sun Xiu's successor Sun Hao, Lu Shu was reassigned as the Area Commander of Xiakou (夏口). Lu Shu was known for being very disciplined and competent in his duties. He died in 274.[41]

Lu Shu's son, Lu Mu (魯睦), inherited his father's marquis title and military post.[42]

AppraisalEdit

Wei Zhao's Book of Wu (吳書) described Lu Su as follows: Lu Su was a strict person who rarely indulged in material pleasures, led a frugal life, and had no interest in common hobbies. He maintained good military discipline and executed orders without fail. Even when he was in the army, he was often seen reading books. He was proficient in arguing and writing. He could think far and possessed an exemplary sense of judgement. He was the best after Zhou Yu.[43]

Sun Quan once said: "I had a discussion (with Lu Su) and obtained a plan on establishing a dynasty. That was one pleasant moment. Later, when Mengde took control of Liu Cong's territories, he declared that he would lead thousands of land and marine troops south (to attack me). I gathered all my subordinates and asked for their opinions, but none of their responses matched my thoughts. Zibu and Wenbiao suggested that I surrender, but Zijing argued that I shouldn't, and he urged me to recall Gongjin and put him in command (of the army) to engage the enemy. That was another pleasant moment. However, in terms of decisiveness, he was inferior to Zhang and Su. Although this weakness of his was evident when he advised me to lease land to Xuande, this shortcoming was not enough to overshadow his two strengths."[1][44]

In 229, when Sun Quan was attending a ceremony to declare himself "Emperor of Eastern Wu", he said to his subjects, "In the past, Lu Zijing often spoke about what is happening now. Indeed, he had good foresight."[45] Born from a wealthy clan in Dongcheng, Linhuai, Lu Su was the first among his family to gain a position in government. He first served as a vassal for Yuan Shu before switching allegiances with Sun Ce due to his friendship with Zhou Yu. After the Little Conqueror's death, he then became a strategist under Sun Quan who was delighted by the former's charismatic personality. His plan to divide the land into three major powers was similar to what Zhuge Liang had in mind with the exception of Liu Biao being one of them instead of Liu Bei.

Lu Su was instrumental in forming the alliance between Sun Quan and Liu Bei which later brought about Cao Cao's downfall at Chibi. He also took over Zhou Yu's position as commander of the Wu army after the latter succumbed to illness. When the relationship between Wu and Shu started to erode due to the issue over Jing Province, Lu Su attempted to mitigate the tension by negotiating with Guan Yu over exchanging territories. In 217, he died at the age of 45 and was buried at Mount Gui.

Romance of the Three KingdomsEditEdit

Lu Su felt that it would be beneficial for Wu to maintain diplomatic relations with the neighboring Kingdom of Shu. Zhou Yu considered Zhuge Liang an immense threat and was eager to get rid of him whenever he had the chance. However, Lu Su greatly respected Zhuge Liang and stood up for him in Wu's councils. He is portrayed as a good-hearted-but-naive character.

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